OpenVPN is a popular VPN solution that provides a secure and encrypted connection over a less secure network, such as the internet. Uncomplicated Firewall (UFW) is a user-friendly front-end for managing iptables firewall rules. This guide will walk you through the process of configuring UFW for OpenVPN.
Configuring UFW for OpenVPN involves resetting the UFW configuration, setting default policies, allowing VPN traffic, allowing the VPN connection, allowing DNS queries, allowing local connections, and enabling UFW.
Understanding UFW and OpenVPN
Before we dive into the configuration, it’s important to understand what UFW and OpenVPN are.
UFW, short for Uncomplicated Firewall, is a user-friendly front-end for managing iptables firewall rules. Its main goal is to simplify the process of managing a firewall.
OpenVPN, on the other hand, is an open-source VPN protocol. It’s used to create secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections. It uses a custom security protocol that leverages SSL/TLS for key exchange.
Before you start, make sure you have root or sudo access to your server and OpenVPN is already installed and configured. If you haven’t done this yet, you can follow this guide on how to install and configure OpenVPN.
Configuring UFW for OpenVPN
Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to configure UFW for OpenVPN:
Step 1: Reset UFW Config
The first step is to reset the UFW configuration. This is done to ensure that we start from a clean slate and there are no previous configurations that may interfere with the new settings.
ufw --force reset
Step 2: Set Default Policies
Next, we will set the default policies for incoming and outgoing traffic. In this case, we will allow all incoming traffic and deny all outgoing traffic by default.
ufw default allow incoming
ufw default deny outgoing
Step 3: Allow VPN Traffic
Now, we need to allow all outgoing traffic on the
tun0 interface, which is typically used by OpenVPN. This is done using the following command:
ufw allow out on tun0
Step 4: Allow VPN Connection
We also need to allow outgoing traffic on the VPN destination port. This port is used to establish the VPN connection. The default OpenVPN port is 1194, but this can be changed in your OpenVPN configuration.
ufw allow out 1194
Step 5: Allow DNS Queries
DNS queries are used to resolve domain names to IP addresses. We need to allow outgoing traffic on port 53, which is used for DNS queries.
ufw allow out 53
Step 6: Allow Local Connections
Finally, we need to allow outgoing traffic to local IPv4 and IPv6 networks. This is done using the following commands:
ufw allow out to 10.0.0.0/8
ufw allow out to 172.16.0.0/12
ufw allow out to 192.168.0.0/16
ufw allow out to fe80::/64
Step 7: Enable UFW
Once all the rules are in place, we can enable UFW using the following command:
Configuring UFW for OpenVPN is a straightforward process that involves setting the default policies, allowing VPN traffic, allowing the VPN connection, allowing DNS queries, and allowing local connections. Remember to test your configuration and make any necessary adjustments based on your specific needs and setup.
UFW stands for Uncomplicated Firewall. It is a user-friendly front-end for managing iptables firewall rules.
OpenVPN is an open-source VPN protocol that is used to create secure and encrypted connections over less secure networks, such as the internet.
UFW simplifies the process of managing firewall rules, making it easier to configure and manage the network security for your OpenVPN server.
You can reset the UFW configuration by running the command
ufw --force reset.
By default, UFW denies all incoming traffic and allows all outgoing traffic.